Wednesday, January 11, 2017

Uses and side effects of Calnif Retard tablets

Calnif retard is a prescription medication used to control hypertension, and to treat heart diseases (Angina). Its generic name is Nifedipine. Calnif retard is given orally. In addition, preparations that are put under the tongue is also available (for rapid reduction of blood pressure).

Calnif retard or slow release tablets

Retard means slow release. 

Retard means slow release. 

Do not crush or divide the medication, otherwise this will rapidly released into blood stream causing severe lowering of blood pressure. 

What your doctor consider when giving Calnif to you?

Some people with history of heart attacks should not be given this medication. So it is very important to mention whether you developed heart attacks before getting this medication.

If you got history of Heart attacks then mention that to your doctor

This medication should not be given, if heart pain (pain in left side of the chest) occurs or worsening of existing pain.

Doctors use this drug cautiously in patients with poor cardiac reserve, heart failure, severe hypotension, elderly patients, patients with diabetes mellitus, and hepatic impairment.

It is important to mention to your doctor whether you take medications for tuberculosis.

These medications given for Tuberculosis can have significant interactions with  Calnif

In addition, this drug should not be used for following conditions
1.     Cardiogenic shock
2.     Advanced aortic stenosis
3.     Porphyria
4.     Myocardial infarctions (heart attacks).

What are the common side effects of this medication?

Common side effects of Calnif

1.     Stomach upset
2.     Reduced blood pressure
3.     Increased heart rate
4.     Headache
5.     Dizziness
6.     Lethargy
7.     Lack of energy

What are the less common side effects of Calnif?

1.     Syncope (Sudden faint attacks)
2.     Nasal congestion.
3.     Shortness of breath
4.     Anxiety (Sudden terrible fearfulness)
5.     Sleep disturbance
6.     Migraine
7.     Pins and needles (paresthesia).
8.     Aggravation of migraine headaches
9.     Sleep problems
10. Passing increased amount of urine
11. Erectile dysfunction
12. Nose bleeds
13. Muscle pain

Hypersensitivity reactions can occur with some patients. They are hives, rashes, and itchiness, and yellowish discoloration of the body.

Rarely following side effects are reported. They include loss of appetite, swelling of the gums, mood abnormalities, hyperglycemia, and male infertility.

Skin rashes when exposed to sunlight (Photo sensitivity) reactions are also reported.

Difficulty in swallowing, intestinal obstruction, and intestinal ulcers has been reported. Increased sizes of the breasts, even in males can occur.

Very rarely Calnif causes agranulocytosis (reduction in all blood cells).


This medication can delay delivery of baby. So your doctor may not prescribe this medication during the pregnancy. It is sometimes used to delay delivery when the baby is premature.

This medication can delay Delivery of the baby

Breast feeding

Amount found in milk is too small to be harmful. But manufactures are advising doctors to avoid using Calnif, unless indicated.

This medication generally considered safe during breast feeding

Drug and food interactions

Patients should avoid taking grape fruit juice while taking Calnif. Grapefruit juice can increase plasma concentration of Calnif.

In addition, anti tuberculosis medication, Rifampicin reduces plasma concentration of this drug. Calnif can cause severe drop in the blood pressure, if co administered with beta blockers such as Tenormin.

Side effects can be reduced, if taken wholly with full glass of water without crushing or breaking the capsules.


AHFS Drug Information

British National Formulary

Use and common side effects Diaglip tablets

Diaglip® is a popular brand name of the prescription only oral antidiabetic agent Glipizide. This medication was developed by Cipla pharmaceuticals, India. Glipizide belongs to the sulfonylurea drug family.

 Diaglip® is one of the more potent anti-diabetic agents in the sulfonylurea family. This medication reduces blood glucose in both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals.

Diaglip tablets

What your doctor should know before prescribing?

Your doctor should know your complete medical history before prescribing Diaglip®. 

He should know whether you have liver problems and a condition called acute porphyria. If you have these problems doctor will not prescribe this medication for you. 

You should tell whether you have LIVER problems

The doctor will not prescribe this medication to you if you are pregnant or breast feeding. If you have renal impairment the doctor will analyze risks and benefits before starting on Diaglip®.

This medication should be taken as advised by the doctor. Also this should be taken as whole with a full glass of water to minimize side effects.

Take with full glass of water

Over dose can result in serious reduction of blood glucose and you should seek immediate medical advice. You need to check your blood glucose regularly during therapy to avoid changes in blood glucose levels in your blood.

Regular blood glucose level monitoring is essential

One of the important things is to take your recommended diabetic diet and reduce weight if you are overweight. Taking the medication and not following dietary advice is one of the main problem physicians face with their patients.

Healthy diabetic diet should accompany this medication. You should not eat sugar and take medication to compensate.

Important side effects of Diaglip

Reduction of blood glucose level is the main side effect of this medication as well.
Knowing the effects of reduced blood glucose is important.

Courtesy : 

"If you get these symptoms then you should take glucose or sugar snack and seek emergency medical help"

They are sweating, feeling hungry, and feeling that you are going to die and feeling faint.

Others will notice sudden changed behavior, impaired judgment, and confusion in you.

Doctors usually start on 2.5mg – 5mg daily shortly before breakfast or lunch.

How this medication works?

Diabetes is caused by destruction of beta cells (insulin producing cells) in the pancreas as well as increased insulin resistance. This medication acts by stimulating secretion of insulin from the existing beta cells of the pancreas. Diaglip® does not reduce peripheral insulin resistance.

 Since diabetes is a progressive disease, destruction of beta cells continues and the number of healthy beta cells goes down. So doctors have to increase the dose over time. Ultimately, the number of healthy beta cells will become so low, that doctors may need to discontinue the medication and start insulin injections. 


Diaglip is an anti diabetic medication manufactured in India. When you take the medication it is important to remember effects of reduced sugar in the body. 

Friday, December 30, 2016

Uses and side effects of Azee tablets and Dry powder Suspension

Azee is a semisynthetic antibiotic in macrolide family. Its generic name is Azithromycin. It is used for wide variety of infections such as respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and genital infections. 

Azee is generally a well tolerated and commonly used antibiotic. However, It has certain interactions with other medications, which can be important.

Common brands of this generic drug are Zithromax, Azithrocin, and Zithrin. This drug has broader spectrum than other macrolides.

Uses of Azee

Oral Azee is used for moderate upper and lower respiratory tract infections. It is also used for genital infections like, infections in cervix and urethra, and in gonorrhea.

This is furthermore used in treatment and prevention of mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV infected patients.

Another indication, which is unlicensed, is typhoid fever. In addition, oral Azeeis used in children for the treatment of acute ear infection, sore throat, infection in tonsils, and mid pneumonia.

Common side effects of Azee

1. Nausea
2. Vomiting
3. Gastric irritation
4. Constipation

Nausea and vomiting is a common side effect.

Gastro intestinal side effects are the commonest. They include nausea, vomiting, gastritis, and constipation. Some patients will get headache with azithromycin.

Certain patients have complained of disturbance in taste and smell.

Rarely patients can get seizures (fits). Liver damage is another rare side effect.


Suspension (Dry syrup)

Suspensions are available in 100mg in 5ml and 200mg in 5ml forms for children. Parent should dissolve it with 10ml of water (boiled and then cooled) and shake it well before use. Put water upto the mark mentioned in bottle.

Keep it in refrigerator and if not used, discard after seven days. It is available in film coated tablets as well. Intravenous form is available for serious infections.

Tablets are usually in strengths of 250mg and 500mg.

It is important to tell your doctor whether you have liver disease before getting the prescription. 

Or Allergies to medications and food stuffs. 

Hives are common sign of allergies so mention if you get them to the doctor before prescription. 

How it is given

Usually administer once daily. Typical duration of treatment is three to four days. This can be taken with or without food.

Doctors will not prescribe Azee for patients with severe liver impairment, severe renal impairment and acute porphyria. Before prescribing, if you have history of heart disease, doctor may ask for an electro cardiogram (ECG).


Not known to be harmful in pregnancy and breast feeding (very small amount in breast milk).

Drug interactions

Azee inhibits liver enzymes that are used to eliminate certain drugs. This results in rising blood levels of those drugs. Few examples are ergotamine, cyclosporine, digoxin, phenytoin sodium, pimozide, warfarin (interaction causes increased bleeding) and theophylline (drug used to treat asthma and cough).

How it works

Azee inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting protein synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its concentration is high (around 400 times) in and around the areas of infections in body. This drug eliminates slowly from the body via hepatic metabolism.


British National Formulary (
AHFS Drug Information

Saturday, December 24, 2016

Side effects of Clopivas tablets

Clopivas is a medication prescribed by the doctors to treat and prevent ischemic heart diseases (In patients with heart attacks). It is a platelet aggregation inhibitor and it inhibits platelet action. It is a commonly prescribed well-tolerated drug. Its generic name is Clopidogrel. Its available as 75mg, 150, 300mg  tablets. Sometimes it is combined with aspirin and called Clopivas AP.

Clopivas 75mg Tablets

What are the less dangerous but common side effects?

Abdominal pain,
Pins and needles,
Nausea are common side effects.

In addition, doctors will not prescribe Clopivas to patients with bleeding disorders, kidney diseases, liver diseases and history of trauma.

"If you have any bleeding disorder or bleed excessively after minor cut injuries you should inform your doctor before getting the prescription."

If you have excessive bleeding then inform your doctor before getting prescription.
Source :Wikimedia

If you are breast feeding, then this medication is not suitable for you. In addition, doctors prescribe Clopivas cautiously to pregnant women.

What are the serious side effects?

Most serious side effects are due to delay in blood clot formation such as in bleeding inside the brain. But it is very rare and doctors prescribe this medication after thoroughly assessing you for risk of brain bleeding.

Bledding inside the brian can be dangerous side effect of this medication but is very rare
Source : Wikimedia

This medication can also cause serious allergic reactions such as anaphylactic shock. If you develop widespread hives, pallor, and chest tightness, edema of the lips and mouth and shortness of breath, stop the medication and seek emergency medical help. This is also rare.

Hives or wheals are common form of allergic reaction. This medication can very rarely cause allergy. Sometimes it can be dangerous.
Source : Wikimedia

In addition, seek medical help if you develop features suggestive of bleeding inside the brain (stroke) such as,

* Sudden weakness of one side of the body
* Sudden headache
* Confusion
* Problems with balance
* Vision problems
* Speech problems

In addition seek medical help if you get yellowish discoloration of the body.

What are the things you should know before taking this drug?

This drug may cause you to bleed excessively. Especially if you are wounded so do the necessary first aid and contact your doctor if the bleeding cannot be stopped. Do not use alcohol, because alcohol is known to increase gastric bleeding. Contact your doctor if you happen to pass black color stools, or develop vomiting mixed with blood.

Very Important !

If you are planning to undergo surgery or do a dental checkup, inform about this drug to your surgeon or Anesthetist before undergoing any procedure. 

Do not take over the counter NSAIDS when you are taking Clopivas without your doctor’s advice. NSAIDS such as Motrin, Naprosyn and Aspirin can increase the chances of gastric bleeding.

How Clopivas works?

A disease process called Atherosclerosis leads to Heart attacks, stroke and peripheral vascular diseases. In atherosclerosis blood vessel lumen is partially obstructed by the cholesterol and various lipids. This increases the chances of blood clot formation inside the artery and can leads to complete block. Platelets play a big role in forming these blood clots. Being an antiplatelet agent, Clopivas prevents blood clot formation and allow smooth flow of blood to heart and other organs.


Clopivas is a commonly prescribed drug for heart diseases. Main side effects are prolonged bleeding and stroke (rarely). In addition nursing mothers should not use this drug.


British National Formulary